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The Fourth Philosophy referred to a number of individual groups whose common goal was to overthrow the foreign powers that rules the land of Israel. These groups favored armed rebellion against foreign authorities. Among the groups were the Sicarii (the ''daggermen").

The Sicarii were a splinter group of the Jewish Zealots who, in the decades preceding Jerusalem's destruction in 70 CE, strongly opposed the Roman occupation of Judea and attempted to expel them and their sympathizers from the Jewish state.

The Sicari carried small daggers, concealed in their cloaks. At public gatherings, they pulled out these daggers to attack Romans and Roman collaborators, blending into the crowd after the deed to escape detection.

The Sicari are regarded as one of the earliest known organized assassination units of cloak and daggers, predating the Japanese ninja by centuries.